Quel che resta di me (Il filo azzurro) (Italian Edition)

Italian Grammar Teach Yourself Italian
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Vincent J. A Thomas N. Savino matricola arriviamo attraverso la figlia Grace che oggi ha 74 anni e vive in Virginia. Non parlava inglese, veniva dalla Puglia, ma mi faceva capire che gli ricordavo tanto il figlio. Mio padre". Squatrito matricola. Si arruola e decide di entrare nei Commandos, nonostante la famiglia cerchi di dissuaderlo in tutti i modi. Sono in Corsica, un'isola della Francia. Spero che tu abbia ricevuto la mia lettera dalla nave "Monticello". Io e Frank Zabatta siamo diventati amici e ci hanno assegnato la stessa stanza.

Sempre meglio che dormire in tenda come facevano a Washington o su una branda dondolante su una nave. Siete due ragazze italiane attaccate alla famiglia e avete gli stessi valori e affetti. Abbiamo iniziato gli addestramenti e ho notato che dopo tre settimane sulla nave i muscoli ne hanno risentito. Ti scrivo presto. Con tutto l'amore che ho nel cuore, per te e solo per te. Stai bene e che Dio benedica tutti noi. Il 7 marzo Paul J. Traficante matricola scrive alla famiglia dal centro di addestramento nei paraggi di New York: "Giusto due righe per dirvi che sto bene e spero stiate bene anche voi.

Ho ricevuto un altro dei vostri pacchi e questa volta ho trovato la macchina fotografica: sono stati gentili Jimmy e Frances a mandarmela. Hanno fatto vedere un film americano oggi ma era talmente vecchio che non mi sono divertito. Che notizie da casa? Niente di nuovo? Immagino che le strade saranno diventate deserte con tutti i ragazzi arruolati. Qui non si vedono che soldati e ancora soldati". Oltre a Jimmy ha due sorelle gemelle, Vincenza e Pellegrina. Liberty J. Tremonte matricola racchiude nel suo nome di battesimo lo spirito che lo ha animato fino alla fine.

Ci chiamano Gorilla E' molto segreto, non possiamo dire quasi niente". La storia di Livio Vieceli matricola inizia in Veneto. Viaggia per 1. Su un mezzo di quel tipo ha combattuto la guerra del Pacifico il futuro presidente John Fitzgerald Kennedy. La costa ligure dista oltre chilometri. Il commando raggiunge la terraferma a ovest della stazione ferroviaria di Framura alle 23, remando a bordo di tre gommoni.

Una volta a riva, Russo con tre dei suoi uomini va in ricognizione. La riparazione va avanti fino all'alba, quando con la luce del sole la missione di assistenza al commando viene annullata e rimandata al giorno successivo. Quella stessa sera altre imbarcazioni americane salpano da Bastia per tentare il supporto alla missione dei "quindici", ma anche questa volta sono costrette a rientrare alla base per problemi tecnici. La mattina del 24 un pescatore, rientrando verso la costa, scopre i gommoni e informa la polizia fascista.

Lagaxo cerca di avvertire gli americani, si precipita verso la stalla. Un dettaglio, come vedremo, decisivo nell'epilogo dell'intera storia. Nel corso del primo, sommario interrogatorio nelle stanze del commissariato locale, al tenente Russo viene chiesto con disprezzo se lui, figlio di italiani, non si vergogni di combattere contro la patria dei suoi avi. Russo non replica. In quelle stesse ore, a Roma, si consuma la strage delle Fosse Ardeatine.

Gli interrogatori successivi sono condotti dai nazisti, al quartiere generale del colonnello Kurt Almers in una villa a Carozzo poco a nord di La Spezia. Ammassano i "quindici" in uno scantinato e Georg Sessler, assistente di Friederich Klaps, capo dell'Intelligence della Marina tedesca a La Spezia, li interroga usando il suo perfetto inglese e spingendoli a confessare con una serie di sotterfugi.

La notte tra il 25 e il 26 marzo i "quindici" attendono l'ora dell'esecuzione nel quartier generale di Almers. Il sottotenente Wolfgang Korbitz telefona al collega Bolze, comandante della Prima Compagnia del Festungs Batallion , e gli ordina di far scavare una buca sufficiente a contenere quindici corpi. Bolze, che si trova ad Ameglia nella Villa Angelo requisita ad una famiglia del posto, sceglie Punta Bianca, una lingua di terra lungo la foce del fiume Magra.

Domenica 26 marzo all'alba i prigionieri vengono caricati su alcuni camion. Mentre sono allineati sul prato, giunge scoppiettando una Topolino: dalla portiera dipinta con una grande croce rossa, scende il medico militare tedesco. Li fucilano con le mani legate dietro la schiena, li gettano nella fossa comune, li ricoprono con terra e rovi. Il giorno dopo, in beffardo ritardo, arriva il contrordine di annullare l'esecuzione. Questione di qualche ora e la conferma di quanto si temeva arriva da "Jerry's Front Calling", il programma radiofonico che fa contropropaganda tra i soldati americani di stanza in Europa.

Quel giorno Axis Sally elenca i nomi dei "quindici". Dall'altra parte dell'Oceano genitori, mogli, amici, fidanzate e fratelli non sanno nulla: continuano l'esistenza di emigranti, come sospesi tra la loro patria di origine che ha dichiarato guerra agli Stati Uniti, e il Paese che li ha accolti. Quindici eroi che secondo le autopsie effettuate dai medici militari americani una volta individuata la fossa nell'Italia liberata, potrebbero addirittura essere stati trucidati a colpi di badile: in alcuni esami autoptici, infatti, viene rilevata l'assenza di fori di proiettile.

Poi nelle case sparse per l'America arriveranno i telegrammi del cordoglio e le medaglie. Il dolore e la fierezza passeranno di padre in figlio, finiranno in un cassetto insieme a foto sbiadite dal tempo. Giovani americani oggi custodiscono solo quel cognome che li lega ad un Paese lontano, molti di loro neanche sanno dei "quindici" eroi.

O che sono tornati a casa avvolti in una bandiera americana. Oppure Santoro che abbiamo ritrovato nel cimitero comunale di Mazara del Vallo, davanti al mare: "Ce l'abbiamo noi! Sta vicino al padre". Oggi persi, dimenticati. Come le medaglie che invece abbagliavano negli anni della pace riconquistata: la "Purple Heart" e la "Silver Star" assegnate a ognuno dei "quindici", la "Bronze Arrowhead" del caporale Tremonte e del caporale Farrell. La busta di una lettera dalla Corsica inviata da John J. Come il generale Anton Dostler, protagonista anche lui di questa storia.

Dostler agisce in linea con il "Kommandobefehl", direttiva segreta impartita da Hitler nel imponeva l'eliminazione immediata di ogni commando nemico catturato in Europa o in Africa, anche se in uniforme militare. In spregio, dunque, della Convenzione di Ginevra sui prigionieri di guerra.

Disobbedire alla "Kommandobefehl" poteva comportare la Corte Marziale. Gli viene assegnato come interprete Albert Otto Hirschmann, ebreo tedesco che in Francia aveva collaborato al salvataggio di centinaia di perseguitati, tra i quali i pittori Marc Chagall, Max Ernst e Marcel Duchamp. Albert era il fratello di Ursula Hirschmann, grande amore della vita di Altiero Spinelli, padre fondatore dell'Unione europea, che l'aveva conosciuta durante il confino a Ventotene.

Dostler viene fucilato ad Aversa alle otto della mattina del primo dicembre Gli concedono di indossare davanti al plotone d'esecuzione l'uniforme con i gradi e il berretto che, poco prima dei colpi di fucile, viene sostituito da un cappuccio. Ella or essa because lui for the masculine, and lei for the feminine, are never used in the nominative , for the third person in the feminine gender, form in the plural elleno ; but esse is preferable. Hence we seldom say lui or lei mi dia una presa di tobacco, give me a pinch of snuff; but signore V.

The pronouns. Us, after the imperative, is rendered by ci : example, tell us, diteci; give us, dated; show us, mostrdteci. In these examples, us is not a pronoun personal, but conjunctive, as will be shown hereafter. The Declension of Pronouns Personal. First Person.

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I, io. Second Person. Nom thou, tu. Nom you or ye, voL Gen. Third Person. For the masculine. Though there are instances of lui, lei, and loro, being used in the nominative, yet it is better to say egli pdrla, ella cdnta, than lui pdrla, lei cdnta ; because lui is not to be used in the nominative, but in the other cases, in which it is better to make use of lui, lei, and loro, PRONOUNS. We therefore say, for him, per lui; for her, per lei; for them, per loro; with him, con lui, or seco; with her, con lei, or seco ; with them, con loro.

Of the Pronoun se, one's self, himself or herself There is another personal pronoun, which serves in- differently for the masculine and feminine : it is, se, one's self; it has no nominative. It is often joined with the pronoun stesso, or stessa, and in that case it is more elegant; per se stesso, by, or for himself ; per se stessa, for herself. Of Conjunctive Pronouns.

The conjunctive pronouns bear a great resemblance to the personal pronouns ; the personal pronouns are, 7, thou, he, she ; we, ye, they. There are seven pronouns conjunctive, viz. They are expressed in Italian by mi, ti, si, gli, or le, ci, vi, loro. God sees thee, Dio ti vede.

The sun rises, il sole si leva. I will tell him, io gli dirb. I will tell her, io le dirb. I promise them, prometto loro; as well for the mas- culine as the feminine. The pronoun conjunctive, to him, is expressed in Italian by gli, and to her, by le : example, I speak to him, io gli pdrlo ; I speak to her, io le pdrlo. We like- wise make use of gli, or li, in the plural, to signify loro; but observe, we must put gli before the finite mood; as, io gli ho inteso dire cose mirdbili-; and loro after the infinitive mood, as, ho veduto far loro cose mirdbili.

But gli for loro is seldom used in prose. The pronouns we and ye are expressed in Italian by noi and voi, when they precede the verbs whose action they make, and to which they are nominatives ; as, we pray, no i preghidmo ; you sing, voi cdntate. We is the nominative of to pray, of which it makes the action ; and so ye is the nominative of to sing ; then we and ye are pronouns personal.

When we and ye, in Italian noi and voi, precede verbs to which they are not the nominative, and there is some other word which goes before, and makes the action of the verb, then they are pronouns conjunc- tive, and must be expressed by ci and vi, in English us and you : example, the master speaks to us, il maes- tro ci pdrla, and not noi pdrla : because the master makes the action, and is the nominative to the verb.

In like manner, to render in Italian, we speak to you, we must say, noi vi parlidmo, and not noi voi parlidmo ; because w e is the nominative, and makes the action of the verb, and not you, which, instead of making it, receives it. Yet we may say, il maestro pdrla a noi, noi parlidmo a voi. But to explain this, observe you must express them here as follows, changing the letter i of the pronoun conjunctive into e ; as to say, to me of it, instead of mine, you must say mene ; in like manner, instead of mi lo, you are to say, melo, pronouncing the two syl- lables short.

And the same is to be observed in all the following conjunctive pronouns. Me, pronouns. Himself, si ; him- V. You, vi ; you of. To them, loro ; to them of it, ne loro; putting always loro after the verb. If the verbs are in the infinitive, or the gerund, the pronoun conjunctive must be transposed; as, to tell me, per dirmi ; to tell me of it, per dirmene ; to give it to me, per darmelo ; in telling it me, dicendomelo ; to give it to us, per ddrcelo; so as to make, as it were, but one word of it, remembering that we must always pronounce short, melo, mene, telo, tene, celo, cell, cele, and the rest after the same manner.

Other examples concerning the pronoun conjunctive loro, them. I promise them, prometto loro. To promise them some, per prometterne loro. In promising them some, prometttndone loro. After imperatives, and before infinitives and gerunds, the pronouns are never personal, but conjunctive ; example, give us, dated; to see you, per vedervi; in speaking to you, parldndovi. After verbs, when a question is asked, the pronouns are personal, and not conjunctive ; example, have you ; avete voi?

Perche, crudo, destin, ne disunisci tu, s'amor ne stringe? E tu -perche ne stringi, se ne parte il destin, perfido amore? Why, cruel fate, dost thou part us, if love unites us? And thou, treacherous love, why dost thou unite us, if fate parts us. There are six pronouns possessive, viz. The feminine pronouns possessive are, la mia, la tua, la sua, la nostra, la vbstra, la loro ; in the plural, le mie, le tue, le sue, le nostre, le vostre, le loro.

Loro, as you see, never changes, but is always loro ; it is put before the masculine, as well as the feminine ; before the singular, as well as the plural number. The pronouns possessive are declined by the definite article il for the masculine, and by la for the feminine. To render them easy to decline, I shall give the fol- lowing example : Sing. Of your majesty, di vostra maesta. To your majesty, a vostra maestc. From your majesty, da vostra maesta. Your brothers, i vostri fratelli, or i fratHli vostri. Of your brothers, de 9 vostri fratelli, or de fra- telli vostri.

To your brothers, a vostri fratelli. From your brothers, da' vostri fratelli. Your sisters, le vostre sorelle, or le sorelle vostre. Of your sisters, delle vostre sorelle. To your sisters, alle vostre sorelle. From your sisters, dalle vostre sorelle. Their highnesses, le altezzeloro, or leloro altezze. Of their highnesses, delle altezze loro. To their bignesses, alle altezze loro. From their highnesses, dalle altezze loro. Though the definite article sometimes occurs in an- cient and modern authors before nouns of kindred in the singular number, yet we ought not to imitate them ; according to the old proverb, tu vivendo bonos, scri- bendo secjuere peritos.

Observe, that when the pronoun possessive is ac- companied by a pronoun demonstrative, we do not put the article in the nominative. We do not say, il questo mio libro, but questo mio libro. Of Pronouns Demonstrative. The pronouns demonstrative are as follow : This, that, these, those. We make use of questo, questi, questa, queste, in showing a thing near at hand : and quel, quello, quelli, quei, quella, quelle, in showing or speaking of a thing at a distance.

Colui, costui, colei, costei are used in prose to imply contempt. Costui and costei, form in the plural costoro, these men or women : colui and colei make in the plural coloro, they or those men or women. We seldom make use of coloro or costoro, either in the feminine or in the masculine for the nominative. We make use of costui, colui, costei, colei, costoro, coloro, when they are the last words of a sentence, but seldom in the beginning or middle of it. We frequently meet with cotesto and cotesta, and they signify that man or thing, that woman or thing ; but you are to observe, that there is a difference between questo and cotesto.

We ought never to use cotesto, and cotesta, but in speaking of a thing which concerns the person who hears us. Therefore you must not say, cotesto mio dbito, but questo mio dbito, this coat of mine. In the be- ginning of a sentence we must say, cib che: example ; that which pleases me, I have not, cib che mi pidce, non V ho. Of Pronouns Interrogative, The pronouns interrogative serve to ask questions, and are as follow : who? Who is it? Who told you so? What will you have? What are you doing?

What house is it 1 che casa e? W r hat? That, when it is a relative pronoun, is expressed in Italian by che, or by il qudle in the masculine, and by la qudle in the feminine : example, il libro che io leggo, the book that I read. Who, except it be interrogative, is also expressed by che ; example ; the master who teaches, il maestro che insegna : the fools who laugh, gli sciocchi che ridono. But if it be interrogative, it is rendered by chi. Of whom or whose is expressed by di chi or di cui. To whom is expressed by a chi or a cui.

1.1 - THE ALPHABET AND THE BASIC SOUNDS

From whom, by da chi, or da cui. Which, masc. See the following examples ; but observe, that you will never find this pronoun in the nominative. Whose fair face, il cui bel viso, or il di cui bel viso, for il bel viso di cui. Whose beauties, le cui bellezze, or le di cui bellezze, for le bellezze di cui.

To whose father, al cui pddre, or al di cui padre, for al pddre di cui. Dont le, it di cui, or il cui. Dont la, la di cui, or la cui. Dont les, i di cui, or i cui, for the masculine. Dont les, le di cui, or le cui, for the feminine. Him, as we have already observed in the chapter of articles, is rendered by lo ; example, I see him, iq- li- vedo ; you know him, voi lo conoscete. If the verb begins with a vowel, there must be an elision : as, I caress him, io I 9 accarezzo.

Them is expressed by li for the masculine, and for le for the feminine ; as, I see them, li vedo or le vedo. Of Improper Pronouns. Veruno, veruna, not one man or woman, is used for the affirmative as well as for the negative. Tutto, comprehends a totality, and agrees with the thing spoken of; example, all the world, tutto il mondo, or tutto H mondo ; all the men, tutti gli uomini.

The whole earth, tutta la terra. Observe, nevertheless, that this pronoun tutte is used without the article ; and is of great elegance, especially in verse. Che tutte altre bellezze indietro vdnno. Sciolii da tutte qualitadi umdne. It is used be- fore masculines as well as feminines, and especially when the pronoun all may be rendered by each or every: examples, all or every scholar, ogni scolare ; for all or every thing, per ogni cosa.

There are some examples of ogni in the plural. But such examples are so uncommon, that they hardly deserve notice. Allro makes in the plural altri; altra, feminine, makes altre. Oblique cases can be constructed by altrui ; as, gen. Altro, when it is not followed by a noun, signifies another thing. Qualsivoglia, whatever, is likewise used as an im- proper noun ; qualsivoglia libro, whatever book ; qualsivoglia cera, whatever wax. Before you begin to learn the conjugations, it will be proper to observe, that all the verbs may be conjugated without the pronouns personal, io, tu, egli, noi, voi, eglino ; you are therefore at liberty to form them with or without the pronouns ; and it will be right in you to follow the Latin rule, Supprimit orator, quce rusticus edit inepte.

And in like manner all other tenses that are distin- guished by a star, except the single verb essere, to be. In the Italian language, as in Latin, we do not make use of any personal pronouns before verbs, except when two or three different persons are expressed by the same word ; — as the subject of the third person both of the singular and plural, may be a man, or a woman, two men, or two women, it admits very fre- quently of the pronoun, when there is no antecedent which points clearly to the subject.

I have. Thou hast, tu hdi hai. He has, egli ha, Plural. They have, eglino hdnno, Preterimperfect. I had, Ho aveva f or avevo. Thou hadst, tu avevi. He had, egli aveva. We had, noi avevdmo. You had, voi avevdte. They had, eglino avevano. PreTerperfect Definite. I had, io ebbi. Thou hadst, tu avesti. He verbs. We had, noi avemmo. You had, voi aveste. They had eglino ebbero. I have had, io ho avuto. Thou hast had, tu hdi avuto. He has had, egli ha avuto. We have had, noi abbidmo avuto. You have had, voi avete avuto. They have had, eglino hdnno avuto. I had had, io aveva avuto.

Thou hadst had, tu avevi avuto. He had had, egli aveva avuto. We had had, noi avevdmo avuto. You had had, voi avevdte avuto. They had had, eglino avtvano avuto. Thou shalt have, tu avrdi. He shall have, , egli avra. We shall have, noi avremo. You shall have, voi avrete. They shall have, eglino avrdnno.

The imperative has no first person singular in. Have thou, dbbi tu. Let him have, dbbia egli. Let us have, abbidmo noi. Have you, abbiate voi. Let them have, abbiano eglino. I join them together, because their tenses are similar. That I may have,. That thou mayest have, che tu dbbi, or abbia. That he may have, ch' egli dbbia. That we may have, che noi abbidmo. That you may have, che voi abbidte. First Preterimperfect. That thou hadst, che tu avessi. That he had, ch' egli avesse. That we had, che noi avessimo. That you had, che voi aveste. That they had, ch 9 eglino avessero.

Second Preterimperfect. I should have, io avrei. Thou shouldst have, tu avresti. He should have, egli avrebbe. We should have, noi avremmo. You should have, voi avreste. They should have, eglino avrebbero. He has had, ch 9 egli dbbia avuto. We have had, che noi abbidmo avuto. You have had, che voi abbidte avuto. They have had, ch 9 eglino dbbiano avutOi Preterpluperfect.

If I had had, se io avessi avuto. If thou hadst had, se tu avessi avuto. If we had had, se noi avessimo avuto. If you had had, se voi aveste avuto. It is compounded of the second preterimperfect sub- junctive and the participle. I should have had, io avrei avuto. Thou shouldst have had, tu avresti avuto.

He should have had, egli avrebbe avuto. We should have had, noi avremmo avuto. You should have had, voi avreste avuto. They should have had, eglino avrebbero avuto. It is compounded of the future of the indicative and the participle. He shall have had, quanoV egli avra avuto. They shall have had, eglino avrdnno avuto.

To have, avere.

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To have had, aver avuto. Had, avuto, avuta ; plural, avuti, ovule. C avendo. Having had, avendo avuto. By the generality of tenses of the verb avere, you plainly perceive ho w necessary it is to be perfectly acquainted with them in order to attain a speedy knowledge of all the rest, since there is such an entire conformity between them, except in the present, pre- terperfect definite, and the subjunctive. And if we would ex- press ourselves with greater elegance and ease, we ought not to mention the pronouns at all; examples, shall I have this?

When we speak negatively, we must use the word non : examples, I have not, non ho : you must not know, non dovete conoscere ; thou has not, non hai : he has not, non ha. And to express, I have none, thou hast none, he lias none, ice. But to express, have I none? I am, Thou art, He is, We are, You are, They are, io sono 9 or tu sei, egli e, noi sidmo, voi siete, eglino sono, sono. I was, Thou wert, He was, io ira t or ero, tu eri, egli era, era, iro. We were, You were, They were, noi eravamo. Jummo, foste. It is compounded of the present indicative, io sono, and its own participle stdto or stdta.

I have been, Thou hast been, He has been, We have been, You have been, They have been, io sono stato, or stata. I shall or will be, Thou shalt be, He shall be, We shall or will be, You shall be, They shall be, io era stdto, or stdta.

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I should or would be, Thou shouldst be, He should be, We should be, You should be, They should be, to sarei. It is compounded of the present conjunctive io sia, and the participle stdto or stdta, of the same verb. It is compounded of the first preterimperfect sub- junctive, and the participle. Second Preterpluperfect. Thou shouldst have been, tu saresti stdto. He should have been, egli sarebbe stato. We should have been, noi saremmo stdti. You should have been, voi sareste stdti. They should have been, eglino sarebbero stdti. When I shall have been, qaand' io saro stdto. Thou shalt have been, tu sardi stdto.

He shall have been, egli sara stdto. We shall have been, noi saremo stdti. You shall have been, voi sarete stdti. They shall have been, eglino sar anno stdti. To be, essere. To have been, essere stdto. Been, stdto 9 for the masculine ; sidta, for the feminine. Plural, stdti, state. Having been, essendo stato. And this rule should be particularly attended to, because herein it is, that fo- reigners are apt to commit mistakes. Of Conjugations. For which reason I shall give but three conjugations.

Amare, will serve as a rule for the verbs in are. Credere, for the verbs in ere. It is proper here to observe, that the infinitives of verbs derived from the Latin, retain the same quantity as they have in Latin. For instance, the verb cantdre, in Latin, has the second syllable long ; and it has also the same syllable long in Italian.

On the contrary, credere, crescere, having the second syllable short in Latin, have it also short in Italian. If you observe this rule in pronouncing infinitives, you will avoid the mis- takes which most learners of the Italian language are apt to commit. The rule, however, has some excep- tions. An easy method of learning to conjugate the Verbs. I have reduced all the tenses of the verbs to seven : four of which are general, and have the same termina- tions in all the verbs ; and the other three, by changing the one letter in the third person, may be likewise made general, and all conjugations reduced to one.

The general tenses are the preterimperfect, the future, the first and second preterimperfect subjunctive. The preterimperfect is terminated in all the verbs, in va or vo, vi 9 va ; vdmo, vdte, vano. The future indicative is terminated in rb, rid, rd ; remo, rete, rdnno. The imperfect subjunctive in ssi, ssi, sse ; ssimo, ste, ssero t The second imperfect, or conditional, in rei, resti, rebbe ; remmo, reste, rebbero. The present indicative, the present definite, and the present subjunctive, are the only tenses necessary to be learned ; for the other four, given above, are general.

In order to form those three tenses, you must cut off the last syllable of the infinitive, and then change the last vowel which remains. For the preterperfect definite of the indicatives change it into ai in the first conjugation ; thus of a? As for the present subjunctive, the vowel that remains is changed into i in the first conjugation, and into a in the others : thus, ami, creda, senta. Preterperfect definite indicative. Present subjunctive. The Participles are, are, dto, dta, ati, dte, ere, uto, uta, uti, iite.

Change the termination, are, ere, ire, with the letters and syllables opposite to them, and you will find the present, the preterperfect definite, and the present of the subjunctive, of all the regular verbs. First Conjugation, of the Verbs in are. I love, dm-o. Thou lovest, dm-i. He loves, dm-a, We love, am-iamo. You love, am-ate. They love, dm-ano. I did love, am-dva, or am-dvo. Thou didst love, am-dvz. You did love, am-avdte. They did love, am-dvano. Preterperfect Definite. Thou lovedst, am-dsti. He loved, am-o. We loved, am-ammo. You loved, am-dste, They loved, am-drono. The poets frequently use cwzdr and amaro, for cwa- H0 ; and so all the verbs in are, Preterperfect.

This tense is composed of the participle amdto, and the present indicative of the auxiliary verb avere. I have loved, ho am-dto. Thou hast loved, hdi am-dto. He has loved, ha am-dto. We have loved, abbidmo am-dto. You have loved, avete am-dto. They have loved, hanno am-dto. This tense is composed of the participle amdto, and the imperfect of the auxiliary verb avSre. I had loved, aveva am-dto. Thou hadst loved, avevi am-dto.

He had loved, aveva am-dto. We had loved, avevdmo am-dto. You had loved, avevdte am-dto. They had loved, avevano am-dto. I shall or will love, am-ero. Thou shalt love, am-erdi. He shall love, am-era. We shall love, am-eremo. You shall love, a? They shall love, am-erdnno Formerly amaro was used ; but it is now the practice to write amero, and so of all the verbs in are. Love thou, dm-a tit. Let him love, dm-i egli. Let us love, am-iamo noi.

See a Problem?

Yet, concealing his anxiety from the girl, he rapidly considered vari- ous plans, searching for one that could mean his salvation, and he soon hit on a crafty scheme for achieving precisely what he had in mind. Names ending with Nella notte intera deve aver persistito in me un offuscamento di coscienza. To obtain twenty-one, thirty-two, forty-eight, etc. Tutti i successi di Giorgio Gaber vol. Galli, an invincibly timid member who never took the floor, stood up and informed the assembly that when Dr. Solo por fuera.

Love you, am-dte vol. Let them love, dm-ino ez,lino. That I may love. Thou mayest love, eke tu dm-i. We may love, che am-idmo. You may love, che am-idte. They may love, che dm-ino. You may put the pronouns personal in the sin- gular of this tense, io, tu, egli, in order to distinguish the persons, which are all terminated in the same manner ; but it is superfluous to put them in the plural, the per- sons being sufficiently distinguished by their termi- nations.

The same rule is applicable to. That I might or could love, ch'io am-dssi. Thou mightest love, che tu am-dssi, He might love, che am-dsse. We might love, che am-dssimo. You might love, che am-aste. Young beginners are apt to mistake in this rule. I should or would love, am-erei. Thou shouldst love, am-cresti. He should love, am-erebbe. We should love, am-eremmo. You should love, am-ereste. They should love, am-erebbero. It is composed of the participle amdto, and the pre- sent subjunctive of the auxiliary verb avere. That I have loved, cliio dbbia am-dto. Thou hast loved, che dbbi am-dto.

You have loved, che abbidte am-dto. They have loved, che dbbiano am-dto. It is composed of the participle amdto, and the first preterimperfect subjunctive of the auxiliary verb avere. If I had loved, se io avessi am-dto.

Thou hadst loved, se tu avessi am-dto, He had loved, se avesse am-dto. We had loved, se avessimo am-ato. You had loved, se aveste am-dto. They had loved,, se avessero am-dto. It is composed of the participle amdto, and the second preterimperfect subjunctive of the auxiliary verb avere. He should have loved, avrebbe am-dto. We should have loved, avremmo am-dto. You should have loved, avreste am-dto. They should have loved, avrebbero am-ato.

It is composed of the participle amdto, and the future indicative of the auxiliary verb avere. Thou shalt have loved, avrdi am-dto. He shall have loved, avrd am-dto. We shall have loved, avremo am-dto. You shall have loved, avrete um-dto. Loved, am-dto, masculine. Loved, am-dta, feminine. Having loved, agendo am-dto. Remarks on the Verbs in are. All the verbs ending in are, are conjugated in the same manner as amdre ; except four, which only deviate from this rule in some of their tenses; they are anddre, dare, fare, stare, You will find their conjugations afterthe regular verbs.

The other tenses are conjugated like amdre. Conjugation of the verbs passive. Before we proceed to the second conjugation, it is necessary to know, that the verbs passive are merely the participles of verbs active, conjugated with the verb essere : example, Conjugation of the verb passive, essere amato, to be loved.

I am loved, souo am-dto. Thou art loved, sei am-dto. He is loved, e am-dto. We are loved, sidmo am-dti. You are loved, siite am-dti. They are loved, sono am-dti. I was loved, era or ero am-dto. Thou wert loved, eri am-dto He was loved, era am-dto. You were loved, eravdte am-dti.

They were loved, erano am-dti. I was loved, fui am-dto. Thou wert loved, Josti am-dto. He was loved, fit am-dto. We were loved, fummo am-dti. You were loved, foste am-dti. They were loved, furono am-dti. I have been loved, sono stdto am-dto. Thou hadst been loved, ski stdto am-dto. He has been loved, e stdto am-dto. We have been loved, sidmo stdti am-dti. You have been loved, siete stdti am-dti. They have been loved, sono stati am-dti. I had been loved, era stdto am-dto. Thou hadst been loved, eri stdto am-dto. He had been loved, era stdto am-dto. We had been loved, eravdmo stdti am-dti.

You had been loved, eravdte stdti am-dti. They had been loved, krano stdti am-dti. I shall or will be loved, sarb am-dto. Thou shall be loved, sardi am-dto. He shall be loved, sara am-dto. We shall be loved, saremo am-dti. You shall be loved, sarete am-dti. They shall be loved, sardnno am-dti. I shall proceed no farther with the conjugation, be- cause it is merely a repetition of the verb sono 9 joined to the participle, am-dto.

Dal signifies, by the; and per il, for the. Second Conjugation of the Verbs in ere. I did believe, Thou didst believe, He did believe, We did believe, You did believe, They did believe, cred-eva, cred-evi. I have believed, Thou hast believed, He has believed, We have believed, You have believed, They have believed, ho cred-uto. I had believed, Thou hadst believed, He had believed, We had believed, You had believed, They had believed, I shall or will believe, Thou shalt believe, He shall believe, We shall believe, You shall believe, They shall believe, aveva cred-uto.

Believe thou, cred-i. Let him believe, cred-a. Let us believe, cred-idmo. Believe you, cred-ele. Let them believe, cred-ano. That I might or could believe, Thou mightest believe, He might believe, We might believe, You might believe, They might believe, che cred-essi. Thou shouldst believe, cred-eresti. He should believe, cred-erebhe. We should believe, cred-eremmo. You should believe, cred-eresie. They should believe, cred-erebbero.

That I have believed, chHo abbia cred-uto. Thou hast believed, che tu abbi cred-uto. He has believed, ciiegli abbia cred-uto. We have believed, che abbidmo cred-uto, You have believed, che obbiate cred-zito, They have believed, che ubbiano cred-uto. If I had believed, se io avessl cred-uto. Thou hadst believed, se tu avessi cred-uto. He had believed, se avcsse cred-uto. We had believed, se ovessimo cred-uto. You had believed, se aveste cred-uto. They had believed, se avessero cred-uto. I should have believed, avrei cred-uto. Thou shouldst have believed, avresti cred-uto. He should have believed, avrebbe cred-uto.

We should have believed, avremmo cred-uto. You should have believed, avresle cred-uto. They should have believed, avrebbero cred-uto. When I shall have believed, Thou shalt have believed, He shall have believed, We shall have believed, You shall have believed, They shall have believed, qua id' avrb cred-uto.

L'Operazione "Ginny"

Plural oder die vervielfltigung des ich german edition. Grandmothers pearls. Quel che resta di me il filo azzurro italian edition. Tu me plais tout simplement tribal. Franca Mancinelli was born in Fano, Italy, in ), and Tredicesimoquaderno italiano di poesia contemporanea(Marcos y Marcos, ) , curated by.

To believe, credere. Believed, cred-uto, masc. Believed, cred-uta, fern. To beat, battere, ei uto-. AH the regular verbs, in the same tense, end with the vowel i ; and this vowel i is preceded by a consonant; as, ebbi, credetti, scrissi. Thus credere, which makes credei and credetti, is both regular and irregular. You will find, in the chapter of the irregular verbs in ere short p. Third Conjugation of the Verbs in ire. I hear, sent-o. Thou hearest, sent-i. He hears, sent-e. We hear, sent-i dmo. You hear, sent-ite.

They hear, sent-ono. I did hear, sent-iva. Thou didst hear, sent-ivi.

Catalogo Dischi Ricordi

He did hear, sent-iva. We did hear, sent-ivdmo. You did hear, sent -iv ate. They did hear, senUvoano. I heard, sent-ii. Thou heardst, sent-isti. He heard, sent-i. We heard, sent-immo. You heard, seni-iste. They heard, sent-irono. Thou hast heard. Mi sent-ito. He has heard, ha sent-ito. You have heard, avete sent-ito. They have heard, hanno sent-ito. I had heard, aveva sent-ito.

Thou hadst heard, avevi sent-ito. He had heard, aveva sent-ito. We had heard, - avevdmo sent-Uo You had heard, avevdtc sent-ito. They had heard, avevdno sent-ito. Thou shalt hear, sent-irdi. He shall hear, sent-ira. We shall hear, sent-iremo. You shall hear, sent-irete. They shall hear, sent-iranno. Hear thou, sent-i. Let him hear, sent-a. Hear you, sent -it e. Let them hear, sent-ano. That I could or might hear, Thou mightest hear, He might hear, We might hear, You might hear, They might hear, che sent-issi. I should hear, Thou shouldst hear, He should hear, We should hear, You should hear, They should hear, sent-irbi.

That I have heard, Thou hast heard, He has heard, We have heard, You have heard, They have heard, ctfio abbia sent-ito. If I should have heard, avrei sent-ito. Thou shouldst have heard, avresti sent-ito. He should have heard, avrebbe sent-ito. We should have heard, avremmo sent-ito. You should have heard, ameste sent-ito. They should have heard, avrebbero sent-ito. When I shall have heard, Thou shalt have heard, He shall have heard, We shall have heard, You shall have heard, They shall have heard, quand' avrb sent-ito. To hear, or to feel, sent-ire. Participle, heard, sent-ito. Gerund, in hearing, sent-endo.

Conjugate in the same manner the following verbs, which are the only verbs in ire, that conform to the rule of sent-ire. To Infinitive. Your teacher will instruct you upon this head ; but should he not, or if you learn Italian without a master, your method must be, to conjugate two or three of those verbs, or all five, at the same time.

This will enable you to learn them with greater ease ; to retain them better in your memory, and to express yourself more readily. In order to conjugate the two auxiliary verbs together, you may, for instance, repeat, Ho un cavallo, e ne sono contento. And thus you may exercise yourself through every tense and person of the whole conjugation.

With regard to the other three, you will receive much benefit, if you conjugate them by other similar verbs. For instance, I buy my goods, sell them cheap, and serve my friends faithfully ; com pro le mie mercanzie, le vendo a buon mercdto, e servo con f delta i miei amid. The verb comprdre is conjugated like anidre : vendere, like credere ; servire like sentire. Qf ' There are in each conjugation some verbs which do not conform to the common rule, and on that account are called irregulars. There are but four verbs of the first conjugation, which in some of the tenses depart from the rule of the verb amdre, viz.

Anddre, dare 9 fdre y stare. The verb fare is, properly speaking, an irregular of the second conjugation, since it is only the Latin verb facere syncopated or abridged. Yet I place it here in compliance with the method of other grammarians. Observe, that these verbs are irregular ; some in the present, some in the preterperfect-derinite, and others in the future tense.

Of the Verb andare. The verb andare is irregular only in the present tense. I go, vado or vo. Thou goest, vdi. He goes, va.