Vaak in verontwaardiging en uitstekend gedocumenteerd. De verantwoordelijkheid van Eternit staat vast, aldus het vonnis in hoger beroep. De rol en financiering van het Asbestfonds staat nu ter discussie. Die boodschap had Erdogan vrijdag tijdens een campagnebijeenkomst in het westen van Turkije aan landgenoten die in Europa verblijven. Volgens de Turkse president kunnen Turken zo hun invloed vergroten. Richt meer bedrijven op. Stuur uw kinderen naar betere scholen.
Laat uw familie in betere wijken wonen. Stap in de beste auto's. Ga in de mooiste huizen wonen', zei Erdogan nog. De Turkse activiste Fehriye Erdal is veroordeeld tot een effectieve gevangenisstraf van 15 jaar voor haar betrokkenheid bij drie moorden in Turkije in Erdal is al jaren spoorloos en was niet op haar eigen proces aanwezig.
In heeft die groepering in Istanbul twee zakenmannen en een secretaresse vermoord. Erdal zou daarbij betrokken geweest zijn, als brein achter de moorden. Zij werkte bovendien in het bedrijf waar de moord werd gepleegd en zou de daders daar hebben binnengelaten. In werd ze daarom in ons land opgepakt, maar enkele jaren later kon ze vluchten, ondanks toezicht van de Belgische Staatsveiligheid.
Sinds is ze spoorloos. Vandaag heeft de rechtbank van Brugge haar bij verstek veroordeeld tot 15 jaar cel. De rechter heeft ook haar onmiddellijke aanhouding bevolen. Tegen Erdal loopt een internationaal aanhoudingsbevel. Of ze nog leeft, is niet geweten. Protest Tegen de uitspraak in Brugge werd geprotesteerd door een tiental activisten van de Turkse politieke partij Front Populaire. Volgens hen is enkel Turkije hiervoor bevoegd. Hun korte protestactie is zonder incidenten verlopen. Emile Friant , le dernier naturaliste? London: Strangeways, Printers, First Edition.
Hard Cover. Privately printed and limited to copies. Green cloth cover with printed paper spine label.
Protective tissue present. Light wear. Minor sunning to spine; label chipped. Clean pages. Owned by famed book collector Waring Jones, whose signature in ink and edition annotation in pencil are on the front free endpaper.
Very Good. Aan alle Nederlanders, Er is iets aan de hand met ons land. Hoe komt het toch dat we als land zo welvarend zijn, maar sommige mensen zich zo armzalig gedragen? Mensen die in toenemende mate de stemming in ons land aan het bepalen zijn. Die bereid zijn om alles waar we als Nederland zo hard voor hebben gewerkt, omver te gooien. Dat laten we toch niet gebeuren?
Verreweg de meesten van ons zijn van goede wil. De stille meerderheid. We hebben het beste met ons land voor. We werken hard, helpen elkaar en vinden Nederland best een gaaf land. Maar we maken ons wel grote zorgen over hoe we met elkaar omgaan. Soms lijkt het wel alsof niemand meer normaal doet.
U herkent het vast wel. Mensen die zich steeds asocialer lijken te gedragen. In het verkeer, in het openbaar vervoer en op straat. Die van mening zijn dat ze altijd maar voorrang hebben. Die afval op straat dumpen. Die conducteurs bespugen. Of die in groepjes rondhangen en mensen treiteren, bedreigen of zelfs mishandelen. Niet normaal. We voelen een groeiend ongemak wanneer mensen onze vrijheid misbruiken om hier de boel te verstieren, terwijl ze juist naar ons land zijn gekomen voor die vrijheid.
Mensen die zich niet willen aanpassen, afgeven op onze gewoontes en onze waarden afwijzen. Ik begrijp heel goed dat mensen denken: als je ons land zo fundamenteel afwijst, heb ik liever dat je weggaat. Dat gevoel heb ik namelijk ook. Doe normaal of ga weg. Dit gedrag mogen we nooit normaal vinden in ons land.
Zo bouwen we toch geen samenleving met elkaar? De oplossing is vooral een mentaliteitskwestie. We zullen glashelder moeten blijven maken wat normaal is en wat niet normaal is in dit land. We zullen onze waarden actief moeten verdedigen. In Nederland is het namelijk normaal dat je elkaar de hand schudt en gelijk behandelt.
Het is normaal dat je van hulpverleners afblijft. Dat je leraren respecteert en mensen niet sart met vlogjes. Het is normaal dat je werkt voor je geld en het beste uit je leven probeert te halen. Elkaar helpt als het even moeilijk gaat en een arm om iemand heen slaat in zware tijden.
Het is normaal dat je je inzet en niet wegloopt voor problemen. Dat je fatsoenlijk naar elkaar luistert. In plaats van elkaar te overschreeuwen als je het ergens niet mee eens bent. De komende tijd is bepalend voor de koers van ons land. Laten we ervoor strijden dat we ons thuis blijven voelen in ons mooie land. Laten we duidelijk blijven maken wat hier normaal is en wat niet. Ik weet zeker dat we dit voor elkaar gaan krijgen.
Dat we alles wat we met elkaar bereikt hebben samen overeind houden. U, ik, wij allemaal. Want echt, we zijn een ontzettend gaaf land. Ik zou nergens anders willen wonen. U wel? Groet, Mark Rutte zie ook: verboden toegang. Maar sowieso blijft het hard gaan. De voormalige hoofdredacteur van De Tijd gaat aan de slag als redactiedirecteur bij Mediafin, uitgever van De Tijd.
Terug naar haar oude liefde dus. Ze moet de publicaties vooral digitaal en multimediaal begeleiden.
Ze neemt haar nieuwe functie op per 1 februari. Isabel Albers is de voormalige hoofdredactrice van De Tijd maar ging het voorbije jaar aan de slag bij De Persgroep uitgever van onder meer Het Laatste Nieuws. Ik heb mijn hart gevolgd. Ik zal ook een aantal projecten voor de groep blijven begeleiden. Haar passage als hoofdredacteur bij Het Laatste Nieuws zal finaal van korte duur zijn geweest.
Na amper drie weken werd ze binnen De Persgroep ook overkoepelend zakelijk-journalistiek directeur van Het Laatste Nieuws, De Morgen, Humo en Topics, ofte journalistiek directeur bij De Persgroep, dat voor 50 procent aandeelhouder is van Mediafin. Bron: Made-in-West-Vlaanderen zie ook. In the run-up to the Davos meeting hosted by the World Economic Forum in Switzerland, observers have pointed out that the success of nationalist populism around the world might be connected to rising inequality.
Ongelijkheid blijft duren: Verdeling van het nettovermogen van de Belgen. Antwerpen - Antwerpse stadsarcheologen hebben op de site van het voormalige Zeemanshuis restanten aangetroffen van het Falcontinnenklooster, een klooster uit de middeleeuwen. Dat gebeurde tijdens de voorbereidingen voor het nieuwe stadsproject Falcon dat op die locatie moet verrijzen. De archeologische vondsten zouden onderzoekers meer moeten kunnen vertellen over het dagelijkse leven van de vrouwen die er ooit leefden. Het ontstond in de 14de eeuw als gasthuis en groeide vervolgens uit tot een omvangrijk ommuurd slotklooster met een kerk, pastorij, kloostercellen, keukens, slaapzaal, tuinen en boomgaarden.
Nadat het in verval was geraakt en ernstig beschadigd door een brand, werd het begin 19de eeuw tijdens de Franse overheersing omgebouwd tot een militaire kazerne. Die Falconkazerne werd in op zijn beurt gesloopt, waarna in het Internationaal Zeemanshuis er tot de sloop begin een plek vond. Nu staat er een nieuwbouwproject gepland met woningen, gemeenschapsvoorzieningen en een openbare binnentuin. Enkele jaren geleden werden er al muurresten en fundamenten van het oude klooster teruggevonden. Zo werden er onder meer een overwelfde kelder, keramiek, speldjes en een devotiebeeldje uit de 15de eeuw ontdekt.
De opgegraven kloosterfundamenten zijn volgens de stad Antwerpen restanten van de kloosterkerk en enkele bijgebouwen zoals keukens. Daarnaast werden enkele grafstenen van rond de kerk begraven zusters teruggevonden. Alles zal nu in kaart worden gebracht en kleinere opgegraven vondsten zullen naar het stedelijk erfgoeddepot worden overgebracht. Een deel van de fundamenten zal vervolgens weer onder de grond verdwijnen, terwijl de rest afgebroken wordt voor het nieuwbouwproject.
De opgravingen passen in de ruimtelijke ontwikkeling van de wijk tussen het stadscentrum en het Eilandje. De site is niet toegankelijk voor publiek. For that, he funds shell companies to run the fuel line for these networks and even pours in cash from a secret stash of state discretionary funds using the diplomatic pouch.
It is not surprising to see that some European politicians including several EU lawmakers were hooked by this. Some have already been exposed by name and shamed publicly, while others are waiting their turn as confidential investigations close in. There are hundreds of other NGOs clustered around these big boys that move in unison when given orders. In addition to raising funds and local recruitment, they are well financed by the Turkish government and supported diplomatically and politically.
To volunteers they offer perks such as facilitation of their business and family dealings in the motherland, or positions in the Turkish government or government-linked institutions for their relatives. Turkish government officials are encouraged to spare time to meet and attend events organized by the UETD when they go to Europe. Among its members are controversial charity groups such as International Humanitarian Relief IHH , accused of arms smuggling to rebels in Syria, and the Ensar Foundation, which was involved in a spree of rapes of dozens of children in the conservative Turkish district of Karaman.
In an email dated Jan. With its control of so many mosques in Europe and the huge financial resources at its disposal, the DİTİB presents serious challenges to the integration policies of all European countries that host sizable Turkish communities. Using the front NGOs and transformed grassroot networks, his intelligence operatives have stepped up their intel collection efforts, run clandestine schemes, plan false flags and even plot assassinations and murders of dissidents and critics. It is not hard to imagine what he is planning secretly. Grootgrondbezit in Latijns-Amerika neemt toe door vrijhandelsakkoorden.
Steeds meer grondbezit in Latijns-Amerika concentreert zich in handen van de rijke elite en grote bedrijven. De ongelijkheid is nu zelfs groter dan in de jaren zestig, constateert ontwikkelingsorganisatie Oxfam International. Bedrijven beroepen zich op vrijhandelsakkoorden om overheden te dwingen hun gronden af te staan. In organiseerden landloze boeren in Bolivia zich tegen families die zowat alle landbouwgrond in bezit kregen, met eigendomsbewijzen die de corrupte overheid hen bezorgde.
Die gronden werden door de boeren al eeuwen bewerkt. De grootgrondbezitters wilden er mijnbouw beginnen. In de afgelopen decennia verergerde het probleem echter alleen maar, met als gevolg dat miljoenen mensen in armoede leven. Volgens Oxfam hindert het ongelijk verdeelde grootgrondbezit de duurzame en inclusieve ontwikkeling op het continent. Colombia staat op vlak van landongelijkheid aan kop, gevolgd door Paraguay en Chili, stelt Oxfam. Vrouwen bezitten minder grond dan mannen. In Guatemala is 8 procent van de grond in handen van vrouwen, in Peru is dat 30 procent.
Een volledige landhervorming was in Colombia een belangrijke eis van de guerrillabeweging van de FARC voor het recente vredesakkoord. De feodale wantoestanden op het platteland waren niet alleen in Colombia de oorzaak van het ontstaan van gewapend verzet tegen de grootgrondbezitters in meerdere Latijns-Amerikaanse landen. Houtplantages breiden zich elk jaar met meer dan een half miljoen hectare uit in Latijns-Amerika, vooral in Mexico en Chili. Dat draagt bij aan de klimaatverandering en het overleven van inheemse bevolkingsgroepen staat erdoor op het spel. In de Peruaanse Amazone heeft de overheid 31 procent van de grond beschikbaar gesteld voor de olie- en gasindustrie.
Deze landongelijkheid leidt tot minderwaardig, onderbetaald en onmenselijk zwaar werk op het platteland en drijft steeds meer armen naar de steden, stelt Oxfam vast. Dat verhult echter de grote onderliggende problemen, zegt Ticehurst. Dat zien we bijvoorbeeld in Bolivia en Paraguay, waar een handvol multinationals bijna de hele sojahandel in handen heeft. In een aantal gevallen moesten deze landen zware boetes betalen aan bedrijven wanneer de overheid hun exploitatievergunningen introk, zegt Ticehurst. De betrokken bedrijven beroepen zich daarvoor op de ISDS-arbitrage die is voorzien in bilaterale vrijhandelsakkoorden van de jaren en , die dikwijls nog door voormalige militaire dictaturen werden afgesloten.
Dat maakt het onmogelijk voor de overheden in Latijns-Amerika om te kiezen voor een beleid ten gunste van de eigen kleine landbouwers en voor eigen voedselproductie in plaats van voor exportlandbouw nvdr. In werden mensenrechtenactivisten en demonstranten vermoord, het hoogste aantal in de recente geschiedenis.
In 40 procent van de gevallen ging het om activisten die hun land of de rechten van inheemse bevolkingsgroepen verdedigden. As of 24 October , journalists had been charged and were in pre- trial detention; at least 8 others were detained without charge and others were in police custody under investigation. The Turkish authorities have shut down more than media outlets, censored at least 30 news websites, and stripped more than members of the press of their credentials; 29 publishing houses have been ordered closed and there have been reports of wide-spread ill-treatment in custody.
Over 70, people have detained, placed under investigation, suspended or fired, including teachers, civil servants, academics and others. The extension came into effect on 19 October and will last for an additional 90 days, and could be renewed. On August 16, my apartment was busted by special forces policemen… I spent 72 hours in custody, in a cage. I hope to be released as soon as I face the real trial. Ferguson names 20 important subjects that are underrated in history classes in Stanford, Yale and Harvard. All periods in British History 2.
The Reformation 3. The scientific revolution 4. The Enlightment 5. The American Revolution 6. The French Revolution 7. The US Constitution 8. The Industrial Revolution 9. The American Civil War German Unification World War I The Russian Revolution The Great Depression The Rise Of Fascism The Third Reich World War II Decolonization The Cold War The history of Israel Vereniging Eigen Huis - Nederland.
Bij het Kadaster zijn niet alleen gegevens op te vragen zoals het huisadres, maar ook de leveringsakte van het huis, waarin soms zelfs paspoortnummer en huwelijksdatum staan. Niets veranderd Vereniging Eigen Huis eist dat er snel actie ondernomen wordt. Alleen degenen met een gerechtvaardigd belang moeten dat kunnen. Council of Europe. Media freedom and pluralism are crucial components of the right to freedom of expression, as guaranteed by Article 10 of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms ETS No.
They are central to the functioning of a democratic society as they help to ensure the availability and accessibility of diverse information and views, on the basis of which individuals can form and express their opinions and exchange information and ideas. The media play essential roles in democratic society, by widely disseminating information, ideas, analysis and opinions; acting as public watchdogs, and providing forums for public debate. In the present multi-media ecosystem, these roles continue to be fulfilled by traditional media, but are also increasingly performed by other media and non-media actors, from multinational corporations to non-governmental organisations and individuals.
Pluralist democratic societies are made up of a wide range of identities, ideas and interests. It is imperative that this diversity can be communicated through a range of independent and autonomous channels and outlets, thus creating an informed society, contributing to mutual understanding and fostering social cohesion. Different types of media, along with different genres or forms of editorial content or programming contribute to diversity of content. Although content focusing on news and current affairs is of most direct relevance for fostering an informed society, other genres are also very important.
Examples include cultural and educational content and entertainment, as well as content aimed at specific sections of society, such as local content. In the present multi-media environment, online media and other internet platforms enable access to a growing range of information from diverse sources. This transformation in how media content is made available and used creates new opportunities for more and more people to interact and communicate with each other and to participate in public debate.
This technological evolution also raises concerns for media pluralism. While variety in media sources and types can be instrumental in enhancing diversity of media content and exposure to such diversity, it does not of itself guarantee it. Individuals still have to select what media to use and what content to watch, listen to or read among vast quantities of diverse content distributed across various media.
This may result in them selecting or being exposed to information confirming their existing views and opinions, which can, in turn, generate fragmentation and result in a polarised society. While limited news resources and self-imposed restrictions on the choice of content are not new phenomena, the media and internet intermediaries may amplify their inherent risks, through their ability to control the flow, availability, findability and accessibility of information and other content online. This is particularly troubling if the individual users are not aware of these processes or do not understand them.
As new actors enter the evolving online market, the ensuing competitive pressures and a shift in advertising revenues towards the internet have contributed to an increase in media consolidation and convergence. Single or a few media owners or groups acquire positions of considerable power where they can separately or jointly set the agenda of public debate and significantly influence or shape public opinion, reproducing the same content across all platforms on which they are present.
Convergence trends also lead to cost-cutting, job losses in journalism and media sectors, and the risk of financial dependencies for journalists and the media. These developments may cause a reduction in diversity of news and content generally and ultimately impoverish public debate.
Fresh appraisals of existing approaches to media pluralism are called for in order to address the challenges for pluralism resulting from how users and businesses have adapted their behaviour to technological developments. New policy responses and strategic solutions are needed to sustain independent, quality journalism and diverse content across all media types and formats. There is a need for an enhanced role for independent public service media to counteract on-going processes of concentration and convergence in the media.
By virtue of their remit, public service media are particularly suited to address the informational needs and interests of all sections of society, as is true of community media in respect of their constituent users. It is of utmost importance for public service media to have within their mandates the responsibility to foster political pluralism and awareness of diverse opinions, notably by providing different groups in society — including cultural, linguistic, ethnic, religious or other minorities — with an opportunity to receive and impart information, to express themselves and to exchange ideas.
In light of the increased range of media and content, it is very important for individuals to possess the cognitive, technical and social skills and capacities that enable them to critically analyse media content, and to understand the ethical implications of media and technology. Media literacy contributes to media pluralism and diversity by empowering individuals to effectively access, evaluate and create diverse types of content; by reducing the digital divide; facilitating informed decision-making, especially in respect of political and public affairs and commercial content, and by enabling the identification and countering of false or misleading information and harmful and illegal online content.
The adoption and effective implementation of media-ownership regulation plays an important role in respect of media pluralism. Such regulation should ensure transparency in media ownership; it should address issues such as cross-media ownership, direct and indirect media ownership and effective control and influence over the media. It should also ensure that there is effective and manifest separation between the exercise of political authority or influence and control of the media or decision making as regards media content.
Transparency of media ownership, organisation and financing help to increase media accountability. Transparency and media literacy are therefore indispensable tools for individuals to make informed decisions about which media they use and how they use them, to search for, access and impart information and ideas of all kinds. This makes them practical instruments of effective pluralism. Against this background, the present Recommendation reaffirms the importance of existing Council of Europe standards dealing with different aspects of media pluralism and transparency of media ownership and the need to fully implement them in democratic societies.
The Recommendation builds further on those standards, adjusting, supplementing and reinforcing them, as necessary, to ensure their continued relevance in the current multi-media ecosystem. Under the terms of Article Appendix to Recommendation Guidelines In the context of this Recommendation, unless otherwise specified, the media are generally understood as including print, broadcast and online media.
A favourable environment for freedom of expression and media freedom 1. The principles of freedom of expression and media freedom, as grounded in the Convention, must continue to be developed in a way that takes full account of the features of the present multi-media ecosystem, in which a range of new media actors have come to the fore. States have a positive obligation to foster a favourable environment for freedom of expression, in which everyone can exercise their right to freedom of expression and participate in public debate effectively, irrespective of whether or not their views are received favourably by the State or others.
States should guarantee free and pluralistic media for their valuable contribution to robust public debate in which societal diversity can be articulated and explored. National legislative and policy frameworks should safeguard the editorial independence and operational autonomy of all media so that they can carry out their key tasks in democratic society. The frameworks should be designed and implemented in such ways as to prevent the State, or any powerful political, economic, religious or other groups from acquiring dominance and exerting pressure on the media.
Relevant legislation should ensure that the media have the freedom at all times to provide accurate and reliable reporting on matters of public interest, in particular concerning vital democratic processes and activities, such as elections, referenda and public consultations on matters of general interest.
Adequate safeguards should also be put in place to prevent interference with editorial independence of the media in relation to coverage of conflicts, crises and other sensitive situations where quality journalism and reporting are key tools in countering propaganda and disinformation. In a favourable environment for freedom of expression, media regulatory authorities and other authorities or entities entrusted with responsibility for regulating or monitoring other media service providers or media pluralism must be able to carry out their remit in an effective, transparent and accountable manner.
A prerequisite for them to be able to do so is that they themselves enjoy independence that is guaranteed in law and borne out in practice. The independence of the authorities and entities referred to in the previous paragraph should be guaranteed by ensuring that they: have open and transparent appointment and dismissal procedures; have adequate human and financial resources and autonomous budget allocation; work to transparent procedures and decision-making; have the power to take autonomous decisions and enforce them, and that their decisions are subject to appeal. States should ensure transparency of media ownership, organisation and financing, as well as promote media literacy, in order to provide individuals with the information and critical awareness that they need in order to access diverse information and participate fully in the present multi-media ecosystem.
Media pluralism and diversity of media content General requirements of pluralism 1. As ultimate guarantors of pluralism, States have a positive obligation to put in place an appropriate legislative and policy framework to that end. This implies adopting appropriate measures to ensure sufficient variety in the overall range of media types, bearing in mind differences in terms of their purposes, functions and geographical reach.
The complementary nature of different media types strengthens external pluralism and can contribute to creating and maintaining diversity of media content. States are called upon to ensure that there is periodic independent monitoring and evaluation of the state of media pluralism in their jurisdictions based on a set of objective and transparent criteria for identifying risks to the variety in ownership of media sources and outlets, the diversity of media types, the diversity of viewpoints represented by political, ideological, cultural and social groups, and the diversity of interests and viewpoints relevant to local and regional communities.
States are further urged to develop and enforce appropriate regulatory and policy responses effectively addressing any risks found. Specific requirements of pluralism Diversity of content 3. States should adopt regulatory and policy measures to promote the availability and accessibility of the broadest possible diversity of media content as well as the representation of the whole diversity of society in the media, including by supporting initiatives by media to those ends. States should encourage the development of open, independent, transparent and participatory initiatives by social media, media stakeholders, civil society and academia, that seek to improve effective exposure of users to the broadest possible diversity of media content online.
States should make particular efforts, taking advantage of technological developments, to ensure that the broadest possible diversity of media content, including in different languages, is accessible to all groups in society, particularly those which may have specific needs or face disadvantage or obstacles when accessing media content, such as minority groups, children, the elderly and persons with cognitive or physical disabilities. Diversity of media content can only be properly gauged when there are high levels of transparency about editorial and commercial content: media and other actors should adhere to the highest standards of transparency regarding the provenance of their content and always signal clearly when content is provided by political sources or involves advertising or other forms of commercial communications, such as sponsoring and product placement.
This also applies to user-generated content and to hybrid forms of content, including branded content, native advertising and advertorials and infotainment. Institutional arrangement of media pluralism 6. States should recognise the crucial role of public service media in fostering public debate, political pluralism and awareness of diverse opinions.
States should accordingly guarantee adequate conditions for public service media to continue to play this role in the multi-media landscape, including by providing them with appropriate support for innovation and the development of digital strategies and new services. The supervisory and management boards of public service media must be able to operate in a fully independent manner and the rules governing their composition and appointment procedures must contain adequate checks and balances to ensure that independence.
States should also ensure stable, sustainable, transparent and adequate funding for public service media in order to guarantee their independence from governmental, political and commercial pressures and enable them to provide a broad range of pluralistic information and diverse content. This can also help to counterbalance any risks caused by a situation of media concentration.
States should encourage and support the establishment and functioning of community, minority, regional and local media, including by providing financial mechanisms to foster their development. Such independent media give a voice to communities and individuals on topics relevant to their needs and interests, and are thus instrumental in creating public exposure for issues that may not be represented in the mainstream media and in facilitating inclusive and participatory processes of dialogue within and across communities and at regional and local levels.
States should facilitate access to cross-border media, which serve communities outside the country where they are established, supplement national media and can help certain groups in society, including immigrants, refugees and diaspora communities, to maintain ties with their countries of origin, native cultures and languages.
Support measures for the media and media pluralism For the purpose of enhancing media pluralism, States should develop strategies and mechanisms to support professional news media and quality journalism, including news production capable of addressing diverse needs and interests of groups that may not be sufficiently represented in the media. They should explore a wide range of measures, including various forms of non-financial and financial support such as advertising and subsidies, which would be available to different media types and platforms, including those of online media.
States are also encouraged to support projects relating to journalism education, media research and innovative approaches to strengthen media pluralism and freedom of expression. Support measures should have clearly defined purposes; be based on pre-determined clear, precise, equitable, objective and transparent criteria, and be implemented in full respect of the editorial and operational autonomy of the media.
Such measures could include positive measures to enhance the quantity and quality of media coverage of issues that are of interest and relevance to groups which are underrepresented in the media. Support measures should be administered in a non-discriminatory and transparent manner by a body enjoying functional and operational autonomy such as an independent media regulatory authority.
An effective monitoring system should also be introduced to supervise such measures, to ensure that they serve the purpose for which they are intended.
Regulation of media ownership: ownership, control and concentration 1. In order to guarantee effective pluralism in their jurisdictions, States should adopt and implement a comprehensive regulatory framework for media ownership and control that is adapted to the current state of the media industry. Such a framework should take full account of media convergence and the impact of online media.
Ownership and control 2. Those thresholds may be based on a number of criteria such as capital shares, voting rights, circulation, revenues, audience share or audience reach. States should set criteria for determining ownership and control of media companies by explicitly addressing direct and beneficial ownership and control. Relevant criteria can include proprietary, financial or voting strength within a media company or companies and the determination of the different levels of strength that lead to exercising control or direct or indirect influence over the strategic decision-making of the company or companies including their editorial policy.
As the key democratic tasks of the media include holding authorities to account, legislation should stipulate that the exercise of political authority or influence is incompatible with involvement in the ownership, management or editorial decision-making of the media. The incompatibility of these functions should be recognised as a matter of principle and should not be made conditional on the existence of particular conditions. The criteria of incompatibility and a range of appropriate measures for addressing conflicts of interest should be set out clearly in law.
Concentration 7. States are also encouraged to develop and apply suitable methodologies for the assessment of media concentration. In addition to measuring the availability of media sources, this assessment should reflect the real influence of individual media by adopting an audience-based approach and using appropriate sets of criteria to measure the use and impact of individual media on opinion-forming. Media ownership regulation should include procedures to prevent media mergers or acquisitions that could adversely affect pluralism of media ownership or diversity of media content.
Such procedures could involve a requirement for media owners to notify the relevant independent regulatory authority of any proposed media merger or acquisition whenever the ownership and control thresholds, as set out in legislation, are met. The relevant independent regulatory authority should be vested with powers to assess the expected impact of any proposed concentration on media pluralism and to make recommendations or decisions, as appropriate, about whether the proposed merger or acquisition should be cleared, subject or not to any restrictions or conditions, including divestiture.
Decisions of the independent authority should be subject to judicial review. Transparency of media ownership, organisation and financing 1. States should guarantee a regime of transparency regarding media ownership that ensures the availability of the data necessary for informed regulation and decision-making and enables the public to access those data in order to help them to analyse and evaluate the information, ideas and opinions disseminated by the media.
Such obligations should, as a minimum, include the following information: - Legal name and contact details of a media outlet; - Name s and contact details of the direct owner s with shareholdings enabling them to exercise influence on the operation and strategic decision-making of the media outlet. Beneficial shareholding applies to natural persons who ultimately own or control shares in a media outlet or on whose behalf those shares are held, enabling them to indirectly exercise control or significant influence on the operation and strategic decision-making of the media outlet.
High levels of transparency should also be ensured with regard to the sources of financing of media outlets in order to provide a comprehensive picture of the different sources of potential interference with the editorial and operational independence of the media and allow for effective monitoring and controlling of such risks. Legislation should set out clear criteria as to which media are subject to these reporting obligations.
The obligations may be limited with regard to factors such as the commercial nature of the media outlet, a wide audience reach, exercise of editorial control, frequency and regularity of publication or broadcast, etc. Legislation should also determine the timeframe within which reporting obligations must be met. Those databases should be kept up to date on a rolling basis and they should be available to the public free of charge.
They should be accessible and searchable; their contents should be made available in open formats and there should not be restrictions on their re-use. Reporting requirements relating to media ownership should include the provision of: - A description of media ownership and control arrangements for media under its jurisdiction including media whose services are directed at other countries ; - A description of changes to the media ownership and control arrangements within the State during the reporting period; - An analysis of the impact of those changes on media pluralism in the State.
Legislation should provide for the publication of reports on media ownership to be accompanied by appropriate explanations of the data and the methodologies used to collect and organise them, in order to help members of the public to interpret the data and understand their significance. States should issue clear, up-to-date guidance on the interrelationship and implications of the different regulatory regimes and on how to implement them correctly and coherently. That guidance could take the form of user-friendly guidelines, handbooks, manuals, etc.
States should also facilitate inter-agency cooperation, including the relevant exchange of information about media ownership held by media regulatory authorities, competition authorities and company registers. Similarly, the exchange of information and best practices with other national authorities, both within their own jurisdiction and in other jurisdictions, should be facilitated. States should introduce legislative provisions or strengthen existing ones that promote media literacy with a view to enabling individuals to access, understand, critically analyse, evaluate, use and create content through a range of legacy and digital including social media.
States should also develop a national media literacy policy and ensure its operationalisation and implementation through multi- annual action plans. Concertiste international. Charles Floquet — — Paris. Finalement le projet ne vit jamais le jour. Biographie par Louis Abadie. Monuments et sanctuaires Paris — De Boccard, et Est connu notamment pour ses travaux sur le pompage optique, les interactions atome-rayonnement et le refroidissement des atomes. Professeur titulaire de la chaire de. Nombreux ouvrages. Le professeur J.
Le professeur A. Le professeur M. Le professeur P. Le professeur R. Trois livres et plus de deux cents articles Adr. Le professeur H. Le professeur C. Adresse : , avenue Rambert — — Vence. Peut-il y avoir une culture sans territoire? Le Gallo - - Boulogne cedex. Brigade Beucler J-Jacques Lt-colonel.
Ma jaAAala Allahu min baheeratin wala sa-ibatin wala waseelatin wala hamin walakinna allatheena kafaroo yaftaroona AAala Allahi alkathiba waaktharuhum la yaAAqiloona. This study is of interest because, for neutrino beams, the charged kaon contamination induces an electron-neutrino type background in the muon-neutrino beam. Des excellents macarons! Menswaardigheid na tien jaar van regstaatlikheid in Suid-Afrika. The gruesome actions of the army follow known murderous pattern of Nigerian military.
Mais sur. Le "confinement" : encore une histoire de couvercle! Publique ou para PC, dir. Philippe prof. Pieds-noirs, belle pointure - Richard M. The latter encourages speculative attacks against the Brazilian Real and capital flight, resulting in a spiraling foreign debt. Needless to say, the IMF program in Brazil will be geared towards the eventual dismantling of the State banking system in which the new head of Banco do Brazil, a former Citibank official, will no doubt play a crucial role.
BankBoston, which later merged with Fleet is estimated to have made a 4. Latin Finance, 6 August Yet the policies they have adopted are likely to have exactly the opposite effects. The most fundamental event [in Latin America] was when the stabilization plan was launched in Argentina [under Domingo Cavallo]. The results, as evidenced by the Argentina debacle, was a string of bankruptcies, leading to mass poverty and unemployment.
Wonderful for whom? Argentina has bled out as much as three-quarters of a billion dollars a day in hard currency holdings. Acting on behalf of Wall Street, he was responsible for pegging the Peso to the US dollar in a colonial style currency board arrangement, which resulted in a spiraling external debt and the eventual breakdown of the entire monetary system.
The currency board arrangement implemented by Cavallo had been actively promoted by Wall Street, with Citigroup and Fleet Bank in the lead. Under a currency board, money creation is controlled by external creditors. The Central Bank virtually ceases to exist. The government cannot undertake any form of domestic investment without the approval of its external creditors. The US Federal Reserve takes over the process of money creation.
Credit can only be granted to domestic producers by driving up the external dollar denominated debt. When the Argentina crisis reached its climax in , major creditor banks transferred billions of dollars out of the country. An investigation launched in early pointed not only to the alleged criminal involvement of former Argentinean finance minister Domingo Cavallo, but also to that of several foreign banks including Citibank and Boston Fleet of which Henrique Mereilles was president and CEO:. Claims that as much as 26 billion dollars left the country illegally late last year prompted the police actions.
The same banks involved in the Argentinean financial scam, including Boston Fleet under the helm of Henrique Meirelles, were also involved in similar shady money transfers operations in other countries including the Russia Federation:. Fleet Financial Group Inc. The ground work of this design was established under the Plan Real, at the outset of the presidency of Fernando Henrique Cardoso At the same time I was also chairman of the Brazilian Association of International Banks and was in charge of the effort to open up the country to foreign banks and to open the flow of money.
I started a broad campaign of approaching key people, including journalists, politicians, professors and advertising professionals. When I started, everyone told me it was hopeless, that the country would never open its markets, that the country should protect its industries. Over a couple of years, I spoke to about representatives. The private sector was fiercely against the opening of the markets, particularly the bankers.
Latin Finance, op cit. IMF expenditure targets could could not be met without a massive firing of public- sector employees, requiring an amendment to a clause of the Constitution guaranteeing security of employment to federal civil servants. Also at issue was the financing formula entrenched in the Constitution of state and municipal-level programs from federal government sources.
This formula limited the ability of the federal government to slash social expenditures and shift revenue towards debt servicing. In June , Fernando Henrique Cardoso, who at the time was Finance Minister in the interim government of President Itamar Franco, announced budget cuts of 50 per cent in education, health and regional development while pointing to the need for revisions to the Constitution. The deregulation of the banking sector was a key component of the Constitutional reform process, which at the time had been opposed by the Workers Party in both the House and the Senate. However, after Fernando Henrique Cardoso took office, it was reformed.
That particular agreement I had worked on was one of the first points in the Constitution that was actually changed. In Brazil, there were restrictions on the flow of capital, on foreign capital acquiring Brazilian banks and on international banks opening branches in Brazil as mandated by the Constitution, all of which prohibited the development of the capital markets. The fixed peg of the Real to the US dollar, in many regards, emulated the Argentinean framework, without however instating a currency board arrangement.
Under the Plan Real, price stability was achieved. The stability of the currency was in many regards fictitious. It was sustained by driving up the external debt. The reforms were conducive to the demise of a large number of domestic banking institutions, which were acquired by a handful of foreign banks under the privatization program launched under the FHC presidency A spiraling foreign debt ultimately precipitated a financial crash in January , leading to the collapse of the Real.
IMF loans are largely intended to finance capital flight. In fact this was the logic of the mutlibillion dollar loan package granted to Brazil, immediately following the October elections which led to the reelection of FHC for a second presidential term. The loan was granted barely a few months prior to the January financial meltdown:. But the central bank will not be able to use the IMF loan to replenish its hard currency reserves.
The bailout money will never enter Brazil. The IMF loan is granted on condition the Central Bank retains a deregulated foreign exchange market coupled with domestic interest rates at very high levels. We must understand the history of successive financial crises in Brazil. With Wall Street creditors in charge, the levels of external debt have continued to climb. With the Central Bank and the Ministry of Finance under the control of the Wall Street establishment, this process will eventually lead Brazil into another financial and foreign exchange crisis.
What this means is that the country looses its economic sovereignty. Its Central Bank is defunct. World Bank directives in health and education require curtailing social expenditures with a view to meeting debt servicing obligations. The grassroots movement which brought Lula to power has been betrayed. These crimes will be condoned and executed by Detroit officials with the full knowledge of the White House. Children will go to school without baths and senior citizens will be deprived of water to take medicine. Having lost confidence in a US national commitment to saving the lives of citizens, advocacy groups have begun to petition the United Nations for an emergency response.
The Detroit Water and Sewerage Department DWSD , has begun shutting off water to 3, people a week, and could soon cut off access to drinkable water for , Detroit residents who have failed to pay recent water bills. Detroit is also a city targeted for ethnic cleaning of its African population to make space for white professionals. Once a thriving middle-class city, the union movement was crushed by the government and business executives determined to drive wages down. At the end of the day, these latest tactics are designed to induce forced relocations, a component of ethnic cleansing that is sometimes politely and inaccurately called gentrification.
The forced relocation tactics have changed over the years, with contemporary methods eerily resembling Nazi-like strategies, such as deliberately poisoning urban and domestic water supplies, depriving children and households of life-maintaining and sustaining water and a decent education. Black communities — already traumatized by the removal and imprisonment of nearly one million African men and the murder by police of thousands of unarmed young men and women — have become soft targets for these unrelenting attacks.
The recommendations from the Council seem tepid and dismissive of the scale of the violence towards African-Americans. These same atrocities occurring in any other country outside the US, such as Bosnia or Syria would cause an international uproar and calls to prevent deaths from water deprivation and to provide international protections for the targeted group. But, the US is the major donor to the UN and plays a leadership role on the UN Security Council, making it virtually impossible for nations that would show solidarity to African-Americans to act through this institution.
Nevertheless, UN member states do have a bully-pulpit to expose the human rights violations occurring in the US. However, when one considers the war-like tactics deployed against an unarmed civilian population, such as, deliberate state-sponsored poisonings, murders of unarmed civilians, forced relocations and imprisonment, one is left asking what part of genocide does the UN not understand?
People recovering from surgery cannot wash and change bandages. Activists claim the city has been unfairly overcharging Detroit residents for water to compensate for its significant financial woes. According to the U. Census Bureau, Three U. These calls for justice are falling on deaf ears.
In fact, he primed the Flint community, in which over 8, children are suspected of being lead poisoned to expect that it may take additional two years before lead pipes are replaced. But not everyone is feeling the pain of water deprivation in Detroit. That kind of pain seems to be reserved for families and communities. Businesses owe hundreds of thousands of dollars but a decision was made not to disconnect the corporate community:.
That list includes apartment complexes, the Chrysler Group, real estate agencies, a laundromat and even a cemetery. The only people who apparently are in denial regarding the blatant, surgical and genocidal attacks against them are unfortunately the targets of the attack. Perhaps, Black folks are hoping that US genocidal policy towards our community will be confined to Flint and Detroit.
How else can you explain the silence and inaction of black communities across the country? Traduit par Wayan, relu par Diane pour le Saker Francophone. After a series of secret meetings between Saudi and Israeli officials were exposed by a select few of mainstream press outlets, both the Saudis and the Israelis are now becoming more open about the relationship between the two governments.
Although, for years, GCC countries like Saudi Arabia have held a public position of hostility toward Israel, many researchers and observers have long been aware of secret cooperation between the two and that public statements were largely designed to provide a cover of Arab identity and self-interest for the benefit of public consumption. After all, the two share common goals when it comes to Iran, Hezbollah, and Syria and all have the common ally of the United States.
In , a U. Israel and the Gulf states also shared an interest in countering what they saw as rising Iranian influence in the Middle East. Fast forward six years, and it seems as though the GCC states have finally readied themselves to go public about their warming relationships with Israel. He wrote,. In recent years, however, the dual phenomena of the Arab uprisings and growing Iranian influence have pushed GCC leaders closer to Israel. RT journalists are on the list too. Some of the journalists, whose data was leaked, have complained they have started to receive threats. Publication was condemned by a number of governments, international organizations and media organizations.
EU envoy to Ukraine Jan Tombinski said that while the leak was published by a privately-run website, he held the Ukrainian authorities accountable for endangering journalists and said the database should be blocked. The website that leaked the personal data is called Mirotvorets Peacekeeper.
It purports to be fighting separatism and terrorism and publishes personal data of anyone its contributors consider enemies of Ukraine. Mirotvorets was founded in January by Georgy Tuka, who now serves as a deputy to the minister responsible for dealing with rebel-held areas and refugees. The project has caused controversy in the past. Last year, Gerashchenko called for leaking the personal data of Russian soldiers and officers taking part in the counter-terrorism mission in Syria, so that Islamic State sympathizers could find and kill them.
The latest leak includes data of journalists and NGO employees, who have been given accreditation by the de facto authorities of the rebellious eastern Ukrainian regions over the past two years. Gerashchenko said the data was obtained as a result of a hack, at least a month before publication.
The Judicial Commission of Inquiry set up by the Kaduna State government to probe the Zaria events, rather than provide soft-landing for the government and the military has brought the cruel nature of armed forces and the Nigerian state to the fore. Between December 12 and 14, , hundreds of members of IMN, which belongs to the Shia tendency in Muslim family, were summarily and extra-judicially murdered by the Nigerian army under the direct order of the army chief, General Tukur Buratai. According to Kaduna State government officials, around corpses were summarily and secretly mass buried by the government, while the IMN has claimed that close to a thousand of its people are missing.
Hospital sources likewise revealed that more than the reported lives must have been lost. Video footages recorded by some IMN members show desperate soldiers running around the IMN buildings to shoot down any visible human. According to Amnesty International report, relying on interview with survivors of the mass purge, many wounded and trapped people in the IMN headquarters were burnt alive by soldiers page 8, Nigeria: Unearthing the Truth, Clearly, those burnt are not part of the secretly buried The question then is; what grave offence did the IMN members, who are Nigerians like the soldiers, committed to have warranted this gruesome and extra-judicial murder?
Even in war situation, women, children, and non-combatants should be protected. Meanwhile, the IMN was not known to be a terror group or advocate of terrorism, at least according to its official statements. According to popular narrative, the IMN members blocked a section of the Sokoto road which is adjacent to their headquarters, in an attempt to secure a section of the road for their religious activity. However, the convoy of the army chief of staff, General Tukur Buratai ran into the roadblock, and attempted to wade through the procession of the Shiites.
This led to disagreement as the Shiites insisted that the army convoy should pass through another route. In the ensuing agitation, the army gunned down about dozen people, and dispersed the IMN parade. In two days, from December, , several hundreds of IMN members were murdered and wounded, while buildings of the IMN, aside its cemetery, were burnt and demolished. The army, in its defensive propaganda statements, claimed that the IMN members were armed to the teeth and planned to kill the army chief of staff. This is aimed at justifying the mass murder of the Shiites.
This seems to be an Orwellian logic where the criminal turns to the victim. Otherwise, how can one explain that the army, which killed hundreds of citizens in a gruesome manner, will turn around to tag their victims, murderous militia? However, no amount of justification, twisted logic or misrepresentation by the army and the government can justify the massacre of hundreds of citizens. Rather, these falsehoods will further show the repressive and neo-colonial character of the Nigerian army.
Without mincing words, blocking of public road for days and creating avoidable discomfort for other citizens under the guise of observing religious rites is wrong and unacceptable. But tell me, which religious group has not constituted or is not constituting public disturbance. Virtually every month, Lagos-Ibadan expressway, a major road for the country, becomes virtually impassable due to religious activities of different sorts along the road.
Should we mention the unsolicited public noise and nuisance?
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Even in the north, religious activities not only constitute public disturbance but also force people of other beliefs and sects to abide by injunctions and directive of others. There have been conflicts associated with non-Muslims passing through public place occupied by Muslims during their religious activities.
Enforcement of Sharia law in many northern states, despite the fact that there are significant religious minorities, shows how religion and political authorities use might, either subtly or directly, to enforce their activities on the society and take public space. In nearly none of these scenarios were security agents drafted to mass murder citizens. This is because politicians, with no popular base due to their pro-rich, anti-poor character and philosophy, usually rely on religious and ethnic bases to guarantee their continuous presence on the political scene.
Therefore, they are comfortable with using religion to further their politics. At such point, they care no hoot if religious activities constitute social disturbance. Some few years back, tens of lives were lost at a church convention in southeastern Nigeria when two contending politicians attended the event. The Shiites possibly became victim of state repression because they are independent of the mainstream political class in the north. The Shiites, on the basis of age-long rivalry with Sunnis, are seen as enemy by the Sunni authorities who control majority of Muslims in the north, nay Nigeria.
But unlike majority of violent rightwing Islamist groups seeking to establish an Islamic state through violence and terror, IMN wants to establish a Shiite Islamic state in the image of the Iran state. This difference is very important. Iran theocratic state was formed out of the crucible of the revolt in against the Muhammed Reza Sha regime, a pro-imperialist, corrupt and repressive regime.
The revolution that started as mass movement of workers against Sha was hijacked by the Islamic organization led by Ayatollah Khomeini. This was made possible by the treacherous role of the Communist Tudeh Party and Fedayeen in Iran, which subscribe to the false theory of two-stage revolution. This false theory has meant that leadership of working class movement, handing revolutions over to various sections of capitalist class, who are only opposed to their colleagues in power on the basis of who and how to run the exploitative system.
This method had ruined many revolutionary movements and set the society back. This was what happened in Iran. This led to the emergence in of a theocratic state under the direction of Khomeini. What was actually needed was a revolutionary leadership that would link the democratic programmes denied under Reza Sha with economic transformation towards socialism, with full democratic participation of working people.
The leadership of Tudeh and Fadeyeen, on the contrary, betrayed the revolutions. Khomeini subsequently purged the political space of radical leftist and communist influences. However, the Iranian revolution, like other revolutions evoked mass enthusiasm among young people throughout the world. It was in this period that Ibrahim El Zakzakky, then prominent student leader formed his organization. Zakzakky perhaps wants to create Islamic state by playing prominent role in the anti-establishment movement and build followership, in the same manner as Khomeini.
The Zakzakky-led group by this condition is a thorn in the flesh of majority Sunni authority in the northern Nigeria. The religious authority in the north, also serve to a large extent as the traditional authority from which the political authority was dependent and allied. Therefore, an opposition to the traditional cum religious authority in the north is more or less an opposition to the state. While the traditional and religious authority supported the military rule, El Zakzakky opposed the military rule, especially the Abacha junta that clamped him into detention for months.
Traditional and religious authorities support various sections of the ruling elites in the country, while the El Zakzakky Shiite group opposes or remains indifferent to most ruling elites. The military and the Nigerian state can thus bank on this support from the religious and traditional authorities to wish away the horror they wrought on citizens. However, they have to strenuously cover their tracks. This is what the military and the Nigerian state has been trying to do since the December , massacre.
Few days after the massacre, the military destroyed all buildings and cleared off headquarter of IMN in Hussainiyyah and El Zakzakky house at Gyallesu, including several dead bodies shot dead and burnt therein,. By this, the military deliberately destroyed vital evidences that could have indicted it.
Also, in the wee hours of 14 December, , barely few hours after the mass murder, the military in conjunction with Kaduna State government mass buried three hundred and forty seven dead bodies at a location in Zaria town. According to reports, including that of the military, few IMN members were only with dagger, knives and swords during the procession, which though was wrong and unlawful, but obviously was for self defence, and was already with the Shiites before the soldiers arrived the scene.
How can military, whose foot soldiers were armed to the teeth, claim that few barely armed IMN members tried to kill its chief? Why did the army, which had earlier killed over 40 Shiites in July , not exercise restraint knowing that emotion of Shiites would run high? Why did the army go ahead, after committing extra-judicial killing at the procession, to kill hundreds of persons not only at the Hussainiyya but also at the Zakzakky building in Gyallesu? Is the right to life not part of military rule of engagement? Even in war situation, the combat soldiers are expected to safeguard lives of the weak including women, children, the old, and even the unarmed.
From the gruesome manner the military carried out the massacre, coupled with the clinical manner of covering up the massacre, it is glaring the massacre is premeditated. The police authority that was not involved in the matter by the army was quick to arraign about IMN members and supporters for various offences including criminal conspiracy, attempted homicide, etc.
How did the police arrive at the conclusion that led to the arraignment of IMN members for these crimes, when it has yet to conduct any serious investigation, other than report from the army and the state government? Interestingly, the police that was quick to detain and arraign IMN members for criminal offenses is yet to hold any soldier responsible for the mass murder of hundreds of IMN members.
The same police authority has not till date probed nor prosecuted a single soldier for the killing of Shiites in late by the same army, despite promises that the culprits will be punished. In late , its members protected Christians against Boko Haram attack. Even when its members were killed in and , it has limited its protests to civil activities including press campaign, rallies, protest marches, petitions, etc. The groups had consistently distanced itself from violent action ever since the latest mass murder occurred.
The police and the Department of State Security the repressive and undemocratic secret security outfit set up under military rule to crush opposition to the military further claimed that the IMN members are lawless and that they constituted themselves into a state within a state. But is it not funny that that the same security agencies that were quick to kill peaceful protesters would claim it has no capacity to apprehend IMN members who acted unlawful? The gruesome actions of the army follow known murderous pattern of Nigerian military. This is not the first time that the army will be carrying out extra-judicial murder.
Beside the 40 Shiites killed in by the army, scores of pro-Biafra protesters were killed and wounded by soldiers during their protests between December and March In fact, some pro-Biafra groups claimed that the army is secretly killing and arresting scores of suspected pro-Biafra members.
Moreover, the various extra-judicial killings by the military under the guise of fighting Boko Haram has not been investigated neither are the perpetrators brought to book. For instance, the extra-judicial mass killing of hundreds of citizens, mostly detainees, by soldiers following Boko Haram attack on Giwa Barrack in Maiduguri, Borno State on 14 March, is swept under the carpet.
According to Amnesty International, several hundred innocent citizens were killed by both Boko Haram and the military in The Jonathan government, whose administration has been fingered in massive arms deal fraud, covered up many of these atrocities. Unfortunately, the Buhari administration, since emergence a year ago, has not deemed it fit to open many of these cases, despite their gruesomeness. According to the latest report from Amnesty International, over detainees, including women and children have died in the Giwa Barrack detention centre this year due to hunger, gun wounds and diseases.
In fact, since the emergence of the military rule, the armed and security forces have wasted tens of thousands of lives in its quest to project its ego, and serve the interests of corrupt Nigerian government and oil corporations. The underlining basis for the military acting like an occupation force is premised on its neo-colonial, pro-ruling class and undemocratic nature.
Nigerian military, since its formation by the colonial master for the defence of colonial local and foreign interests, has not fundamentally departed from this orientation even after the end of colonial rule. It has transformed from defending colonial interests to defending the interests of various sections of capitalist political class. Therefore, the military in any engagement will be prepared to defend the interests of its overlords in the political and imperialist camps, even if involves killings hundreds of citizens. This is made worse by the undemocratic nature of running the military, where the rank and file soldiers have no democratic input into decision making process in the military, even on their welfare issues.
Aside answerable only to the commander-in-chief, there is no public democratic control over the military and the armed forces. This means that if a senior military officer, acting under ethno-religious or pecuniary influences, takes a deadly decision, such will have to be abided with by juniors. There are reported cases of compromised commanding officers cornering money meant for materials and upkeep of rank and file soldiers in the Boko Haram fight thus sacrificing lives of foot soldiers.
In one instance, rank and file soldiers had to mutiny against their commanding officer, after his order led to mass killing of soldiers by Boko Haram. The diversion of billions of dollars meant for the fight against Boko Haram by elements in Goodluck Jonathan administration shows how corrupt and undemocratic the political and military structure are.
Such armed forces, aside being put under the democratic control of rank and file officers — without necessarily encouraging indiscipline — and society at large, will also play vital role in socio-economic and political development. The current neo-colonial, backward and pro-rich armed forces is only representing the backward, neo-colonial, primitive capitalist system we have in Nigeria.
The mass murder of Shiites, among other massacres, clearly underscores this. The responses of the Nigerian state have also shown that Nigerian governments do not care a hoot for lives of their citizens, inasmuch as their interest to continue to rule is guaranteed. Yet, the state government has no enough capacity to fully investigate this massacre or prosecute the dramatis personae involved especially the military, as it does not control any security and intelligence structure.
This is clearly an attempt to defray public outcry against the mass murder. The Kaduna State government is also dubiously trying to justify the massacre.
Immediately the carnage occurred, the state government placed the blame at the doorstep of Islamic Movement of Nigeria, but refused to condemn the army for the killing. Of course, the government later set up a Judicial Commission of Inquiry in January, to probe the issue. The same government that set up a commission of inquiry was helping military to cover up vital evidences should help expose the military. The government also provided moral support for the military in carrying out torture of those arrested, many of whom were wounded. A survivor named Nasiru, who spoke to Amnesty, was quoted thus:.
I was outside the Hussainiya on Saturday afternoon when the soldiers started to shoot so I went to ground and as I was crawling a soldier grabbed me by the scruff of the neck and stabbed me with a knife below my left eye. It was a deep cut. I must have passed out briefly and he dragged me to the one of their trucks nearby. I fainted. The following morning I was taken to the hospital. The arrow was only removed nine days later because the doctors did not know how to go about it…. According to the Amnesty report, hospital officials claimed that the kind of wound of Nasiru was the pattern of those treated.
Yet, the Kaduna State government, aside unilaterally and unjustly tagging these victims of military brutality as the culprit, went as far as helping to detain and arraign most of these people for criminal offences. Many of those arraigned have not recovered from the loss of loved ones and family members. This clearly shows the bias of the state government towards indicting the IMN.
Can any genuine intention lie behind the setting of a commission of inquiry? The demand of the IMN that its leader be released in order to prepare its defence was not acceded to. All of these the government and the Commission had deliberately wished away. It is clear that the governments, both federal and Kaduna state, want to make a scapegoat of Shiites in order to send strong message to any other dissident or dissent voice that may want to oppose the government.
In the last one year, about two thousand lives have been lost to extra-judicial killings and criminal negligence by security and armed forces under the Buhari government. All this shows government in disarray which is therefore afraid of opposition. This is a result of its adherence to the same neo-liberal capitalist orientation, nay its neo-colonial form, of the past that ensure wealth for the rich few, and impoverishment for the majority.
Inasmuch as the current economic maelstrom facing the country was not caused by the Buhari government, it has however gotten worse under its watch, with the government being lost on what to do. While the poor and the working people are made to bear the brunt of the economic crisis through unpaid salaries and pensions, hike in fuel price and electricity tariffs, retrenchment and ballooning unemployment, skyrocketing inflation, etc. This kind of situation will surely sooner than later engender popular anger and opposition.
Even in the north, there is growing anger against the prevailing situation. It is this fallout anger the government wants to avoid by allowing extra-judicial killings of Shiites and pro-Biafra protestors to be covered up. This is meant to send jitters to the spines of those who may want to oppose the government.
The deliberately silence and passivity of the government towards the atrocities of herdsmen who are killing Nigerians in drove in the name of feeding cattle is also aimed at getting people divided and occupied. Already in Kaduna State, the El Rufai government, fearful that religious activities may become a new centre of opposition, wants to castrate non-mainstream religious preachers and groups by enforcing a compulsory license for religious preachers. This means that groups that are not favoured by the state and pro-state mainstream religious authorities will be officially banned.
Definitely, IMN will be a victim of this. While one will not support religious demagogy that unnecessarily exhorts spiritualism over reason, reality and science, it is ridiculous that the state government will think that its neo-fascist censoring of religious freedom, can curtail opposition. Moreover, the government is trying to destroy trade unions by discouraging workers from joining unions and paying union dues. It is true that labour union, guaranteed regular check-off dues from members aside perks from the state, have become utterly irresponsive and passive to the welfare interests of workers and union members.
However, the right to reform the union is that of workers. It is not the duty of the El Rufai government, which sole aim is to use the irresponsibility of labour leaders to further cripple the labour movement to reform unions. Nationally too, students are rising against worsening state of studying and living, with such protests being repressed by pro-state school authorities. They never learn from their mistake because their pecuniary and short term interest always beclouds their sense of judgment. This was the same way Boko Haram terrorism was engendered when about a thousand of the sect members were murdered in cold blood by soldiers in The beheaded monster left by Muhammed Yussuf later grew into a wider, more vengeful and bloodthirsty terror gang that is still ravaging the country.
Of course, the northern religious and political leaders are fretting on the possible fall out of the Shiite massacre; but they do not want justice to be done, in order to preserve their ego and authority. On several occasions, IMN spokespersons have maintained that they will not take the road of violence. However, this does not guarantee that the massacre will not snowball into worse crisis in the short or long run.
Secondly, there is the possibility of breakaway from the main IMN group by more radical or youthful layer. More than this, other non-mainstream religious groups and angry youths, learning from the IMN experience, may build up armed militia or go violent against the state and its officials. On the other hand, if the military get away with these atrocities, it will embolden it to become more terroristic against the citizens, especially perceived opponents.
This can only generate a cycle of violent crises. The minimum the Nigerian state can do is to tender immediate apology to the Shiites; carry out genuine and democratic probe panel that comprise representatives of workers, communities, and Shiites, and those found culpable should be prosecuted. Moreover, government must reverse all repressive policies, against the Shiites and the working and poor people.
There must also be payment of hospital bills of those injured and compensation to affected people. The labour movement in Nigeria and genuine pro-democracy and pro-labour organizations must exert mass pressure to demand justice in this matter. Conclusively, the rise in religious radicalism and revivalism in both Islam and Christianity reflects growing disillusion with the socio-economic and political situations of the country. People are worse off, yet there seems to be no genuine way out. This has fueled rise in frustration and religiosity. Only working class actions can resolve growing disillusion expressed in religious radicalism and revivalism.
More vital is the need for labour leadership to build alternative political platform with clear anti-capitalist, revolutionary socialist programmes that will liberate working and poor people from the poverty and misery. Convocation of a political summit of labour movement, pro-labour organizations, socialist and left groups, radical parties, etc. The same NSCIA — the leading Islamic pro-Sunni group in Nigeria — that was calling for a judicial probe was quick to agree that IMN constituted law unto itself, even when there are no independent prove of such.
Some rivers and streams in North Dakota now carry levels of radioactive and toxic materials higher than federal drinking water standards as a result of wastewater spills, the scientists found after testing near spills. High levels of lead — the same heavy metal that infamously contaminated water in Flint, Michigan — as well as the radioactive element radium, were discovered near spill sites.
The pollution was found on land as well as in water. The sheer number of spills in the past several years is striking. All told, the Duke University researchers mapped out a total of over 3, accidental spills of oil and gas wastewater in North Dakota alone. Contamination remained at the oldest spill site tested, where roughly barrels of wastewater were released in a spill four years before the team of researchers arrived to take samples, demonstrating that any cleanup efforts at the site had been insufficient.
And that radioactive contamination — in some places over times the levels of radioactivity as found upstream from the spill — will be here to stay for millennia, the researchers concluded, unless unprecedented spill clean-up efforts are made. He criticized the researchers for failing to include any in-depth testing of sites where the most extensive types of cleanup efforts had been completed.
The industry often pumps its toxic waste underground in a process known as wastewater injection. But environmentalists argue that relaxing the rules for radioactive waste disposal could mean that radioactive materials receive less careful handling. The spills the Duke University researchers identified often resulted from a failure to maintain infrastructure including pipelines and storage tanks. Roughly half of the wastewater spilled came from failed pipelines, followed by leaks from valves and other pipe connectors, and then tank leaks or overflows.